AskDefine | Define machining

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Verb

machining
  1. present participle of machine

Extensive Definition

Conventional machining, one of the most important material removal methods, is a collection of material-working processes in which power-driven machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, and drill presses are used with a sharp cutting tool to mechanically cut the material to achieve the desired geometry. Machining is a part of the manufacture of almost all metal products. It is not uncommon for other materials to be machined. A person who specializes in machining is called a machinist. Machining is also a hobby. A room, building, or company where machining is done is called a machine shop.

Machining operations

The three principal machining processes are classified as turning, drilling and milling. Other operations falling into miscellaneous categories include shaping, planing, broaching and sawing. Turning operations are operations that rotate the workpiece as the primary method of moving metal against the cutting tool. Lathes are the principal machine tool used in turning. Milling operations are operations in which the cutting tool rotates to bring cutting edges to bear against the workpiece. Milling machines are the principal machine tool used in milling. Drilling operations are operations in which holes are produced or refined by bringing a rotating cutter with cutting edges at the lower extremity into contact with the workpiece. Drilling operations are done primarily in drill presses but not uncommon on the lathes or mills. Miscellaneous operations are operations that strictly speaking may not be machining operations in that they may not be chip producing operations but these operations are performed at a typical machine tool. Burnishing is an example of a miscellaneous operation. Burnishing produces no chips but can be performed at a lathe, mill, or drill press.
An unfinished workpiece requiring machining will need to have some material cut away to create a finished product. A finished product would be a workpiece that meets the specifications set out for that workpiece by engineering drawings or blueprints. For example, a workpiece may be required to have a specific outside diameter. A lathe is a machine tool that can be used to create that diameter by rotating a metal workpiece, so that a cutting tool can cut metal away, creating a smooth, round surface matching the required diameter and surface finish. A drill can be used to remove metal in the shape of a cylindrical hole. Other tools that may be used for various types of metal removal are milling machines, saws, and grinding tools. Many of these same techniques are used in woodworking.
More recent, advanced machining techniques include electrical discharge machining (EDM), electro-chemical erosion, laser, or water jet cutting to shape metal workpieces.
As a commercial venture, machining is generally performed in a machine shop, which consists of one or more workrooms containing major machine tools. Although a machine shop can be a stand alone operation, many businesses maintain internal machine shops which support specialized needs of the business.
Machining requires attention to many details for a workpiece to meet the specifications set out in the engineering drawings or blueprints. Beside the obvious problems related to correct dimensions, there is the problem of achieving the correct finish or surface smoothness on the workpiece. The inferior finish found on the machined surface of a workpiece may be caused by incorrect clamping, dull tool, or inappropriate presentation of a tool. Frequently, this poor surface finish, known as chatter, is evident by an undulating or irregular finish, and the appearance of waves on the machined surfaces of the workpiece.

Overview of machining technology

Machining is not just one process; it is a group of processes. The common feature is the use of a cutting tool to form a chip that is removed from the workpart. To perform the operation, relative motion is required between the tool and work. This relative motion is achieved in most machining operation by means of a primary motion, called cutting speed and a secondary motion called feed. The shape of the tool and its penetration into the work surface, combined with these motions, produce the desired shape of the resulting work surface.

Types of machining operation

There are many kinds of machining operations, each of which is capable of generating a certain part geometry and surface texture.
In turning, a cutting tool with a single cutting edge is used to remove material from a rotating workpiece to generate a cylindrical shape. The speed motion in turning is provided by the rotating workpart, and the feed motion is achieved by the cutting tool moving slowly in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the workpiece.
Drilling is used to create a round hole. It is accomplished by a rotating tool that is typically has two cutting edges. The tool is fed in a direction parallel to its axis of rotation into the workpart to form the round hole.
In boring, the tool is used to enlarge an already available hole. It is a fine finishing operation used in the final stages of product manufacture.
In milling, a rotating tool with multiple cutting edges is moved slowly relative to the material to generate a plane or straight surface. The direction of the feed motion is perpendicular to the tool's axis of rotation. The speed motion is provided by the rotating milling cutter. The two basic forms of milling are —
Peripheral milling
Face milling
Other conventional machining operations include shaping, planing, broaching and sawing. Also, grinding and similar abrasive operations are often included within the category of machining.

The cutting tool

A cutting tool has one or more sharp cutting edges and is made of a material that harder than the work material. The cutting edge serves to separate chip from the parent work material. Connected to the cutting edge are the two surfaces of the tool —
The rake face; and
The flank.
The rake face which directs the flow of newly formed chip, is oriented at a certain angle is called the rake angle "α". It is measured relative to the plane perpendicular to the work surface. The rake angle can be positive or negative. The flank of the tool provides a clearance between the tool and the newly formed work surface, thus protecting the surface from abrasion, which would degrade the finish. This angle between the work surface and the flank surface is called the relief angle. There are two basic types of cutting tools —
Single point tool; and Multiple-cutting-edge tool.
A single point tool has one cutting edge and is used for turning. During mechining, the point of the penetrates below the original work surface of the workpart. The point is usily rounded to a certain radius, called the nose radius.
Multiple-cutting-edge tools have more than one cutting edge and usually achieve their motion relative to the workpartby rotating. Drilling and milling uses rotating multiple-cutting-edge tools. Although the shapes of these tools are different from a single-point tool, many elements of tool geometry are similar.

Cutting conditions

Relative motion is required between the tool and work to perform a machining operation. The primary motion is accomplished at a certain cutting speed. In addition, the tool must be moved laterally across the work. This is a much slower motion, called the feed. The remaining dimension of the cut is the penetration of the cutting tool below the original work surface, called the depth of cut. Collectively, speed, feed, and depth of cut are called the cutting conditions. They form the three dimensions of the machining process, and for certain operations, their product can be used to obtain the material removal rate for the process —
_ = vfd\,\!
where —
  • _\,\! — the material removal rate in mm3/s, (in3/s),
  • v\,\! — the cutting speed in m/s, (ft/min),
  • f\,\! — the feed in mm, (in),
  • d\,\! — the depth of cut in mm, (in).
Note:— All units MUST be converted to the corresponding decimal (or USCU) units.
Machining operations usually divide into two categories, distinguished by purpose and cutting conditions:
Roughing cuts, and
Finishing cuts''.
Roughing cuts are used to remove large amount of material from the starting workpart as rapidly as possible, in order to produce a shape close to the desired form, but leaving some material on the piece for a subsequent finishing operation. Finishing cuts are used to complete the part and achieve the final dimension, tolerances, and surface finish. In production machining jobs, one or more roughing cuts are usually performed on the work, followed by one or two finishing cuts. Roughing operations are done at high feeds and depths — feeds of .04-1.25 mm/rev (0.015-0.050 in/rev) and depths of 2.5-20 mm (0.100-0.750 in) are typical. Finishing operations are carried out at low feeds and depths - feeds of 0.0125-0.04 mm/rev (0.0005-0.0015 in/rev) and depths of 0.75-2.0 mm (0.030-0.075 in) are typical. Cutting speeds are lower in roughing than in finishing.
A cutting fluid is often applied to the machining operation to cool and lubricate the cutting tool. Determining whether a cutting fluid should be used, and, if so, choosing the proper cutting fluid, is usually included within the scope of cutting condition.

Stages in metal cutting

Roughing cuts are used to remove large amount of material from the starting workpart as rapidly as possible, in order to produce a shape close to the desired form, but leaving some material on the piece for a subsequent finishing operation. Finishing cuts are used to complete the part and achieve the final dimension, tolerances, and surface finish. In production machining jobs, one or more roughing cuts are usually performed on the work, followed by one or two finishing cuts. Roughing operations are done at high feeds and depths — feeds of .04-1.25 mm/rev (0.015-0.050 in/rev) and depths of 2.5-20 mm (0.100-0.750 in) are typical. Finishing operations are carried out at low feeds and depths - feeds of 0.125-0.4 mm/rev (0.005-0.015 in/rev) and depths of 0.75-2.0 mm (0.030-0.075 in) are typical. Cutting speeds are lower in roughing than in finishing.
A cutting fluid is often applied to the machining operation to cool and lubricate the cutting tool. Determining whether a cutting fluid should be used, and, if so, choosing the proper cutting fluid, is usually included within the scope of cutting condition.

References

External links

machining in Azerbaijani: Kəsmə ilə emal
machining in Bavarian: Spanendes Fertigungsvafahrn
machining in German: Zerspanen
machining in Spanish: Mecanizado
machining in French: Usinage
machining in Hebrew: עיבוד שבבי
machining in Hungarian: Forgácsolás
machining in Dutch: Verspanen
machining in Japanese: 機械加工
machining in Portuguese: Usinagem
machining in Russian: Обработка резанием
machining in Slovak: Mechanické obrábanie
machining in Finnish: Konepaja
machining in Turkish: Talaşlı imalat
machining in Chinese: 机械加工
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